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Table 3 Current and ancestral estimates of male effective population size (N m ) based on simulations of the HGDP NRY sequences

From: Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences

  Mean Mode 95% HPD R2 Bias RMSE Coverage Factor 2
Current sizes         
Africa 6,565 7,662 4,632-7,898 0.99 −0.01 0.11 100 1
Oceania 2,060 2,172 1,920-2,188 0.92 0 0.04 75 1
Europe 3,815 4,327 2,814-4,456 0.99 0.02 0.11 98 1
Central Asia 8,579 8,888 8,155-8,961 0.97 0 0.03 94 1
East Asia 22,009 22,630 21,113-22,901 0.96 0 0.03 81 1
Americas 685 746 566-789 0.95 0 0.11 79 1
Ancestral sizes         
Africa 32 48 2-75 0.69 2.97 2.62 81 0.63
Out-of-Africa 15 10 1-59 0.69 3.27 2.61 75 0.69
Oceania 30 12 3-62 0.67 1.91 2.19 88 0.56
Europe 18 17 1-42 0.70 2.77 2.43 83 0.62
Central Asia 74 122 10-129 0.78 1.18 1.09 89 0.78
East Asia 4,935 4,704 4,269-5,664 0.98 −0.02 0.07 89 1
Americas 21 28 2-45 0.58 2.41 2.39 80 0.64
  1. The simulations assumed the model of population history in Figure 1 and the mean divergence time estimates in Table 2. Simulations were carried out with a uniform prior distribution on Nm of 1 to 100,000 for each regional group. The statistics for the pseudo-observed values (R2, Bias, RMSE, Coverage, and Factor 2) are as defined in the legend to Table 2.