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Table 2 Substitutions found for meat products with cytb and COI DNA sequence information

From: Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study

      Substituted samples   
Commercial label Species N Correct False Substituted with beef Mixture of species Other species found in non-mixed samples Species found in mixed samples (sausages)
Beef Bos taurus 14 14 0 NA 1 NA  
Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus 2 1 1 0 0 Bushbuck -
Blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus 1 0 1 0 - Nyala -
Eland Tragelaphus oryx 8 1 7 2 - Gemsbok, kudu, blue wildebeest, -
Game Game 5 2 3 3 0 Gemsbok -
Gemsbok Oryx gazella 14 4 10 3 - Kudu, blesbok or bontebok, blue wildebeest, impala -
Impala Aepyceros melampus 4 2 2 1 - Bontebok or blesbok -
Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros 39 3 36 13 5 Hartebeest, gemsbok, waterbuck, eland, mountain zebra, giraffe, lamb, kangaroo Kangaroo + beef, beef + lamb , eland + hartebeest
Ostrich Struthio camelus 23 7 16 10 5 Springbok, kudu, black wildebeest, kangaroo Ostrich + lamb, beef + pork, beef + lamb
Springbok Antidorcas marsupialis 33 8 25 11 4 Gemsbok, kudu, eland, blue wildebeest, hartebeest, impala, common duiker, kangaroo, horse Beef + waterbuck, beef + lamb, springbok + lamb
Warthog Phacochoerus africanus 2 2 0 0 0 - -
Zebra Equus burchelli 1 1 0 0 0 - -
Total   146 45 101 43 15   
  1. The number of substituted products in the form of species mixtures is indicated in the column ‘Mixture of species’, and the nature of these mixtures are indicated under “Species found in mixed samples (sausages)”. The substitutions for biltong, fresh meat, carpaccio and smoked meat are summarized under ‘Other species found in non-mixed samples”’. “Substituted with beef” is indicated for both mixed and non-mixed samples. Domestic and foreign substitute species are indicated in bold. NA: not applicable.