Single unit of the smart cartridge. Each unit contains four reagent reservoirs (for lysis, wash, ethanol, and elution solutions), with each reservoir sealed by top and bottom foils. Fluids move from chamber to chamber via channels in the integrated biochip. For example, lysis buffer and ethanol travel via the integrated biochip to the swab chamber, where chaotic bubbling and cell lysis occur. At the conclusion of the purification process, DNA is transferred from the eluate-holding chamber to the integrated biochip, where it reconstitutes a lyophilized PCR cake.