of the average kinship index (AKI) distributions of full-sibling and parent/child relationships. Log10(AKI) distributions of full-sibling and parent/child relationships with the most informative autosomal and Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) in Tables 1 and 4. The horizontal axis labels are '14 auto- + 6 Y-STRs' to '18 auto- + 2 Y-STRs' which are the combinations of a specified number of the most informative autosomal STRs in section A (except for the D12S391 locus, because this locus is linked with the VWA locus) and a specified number of the most informative Y-STRs. The term '19 auto- + 1 Y-STRs' refers to all 19 autosomal STR loci in section A and the most informative Y-STR (DYS385). Independence between D12S391 and VWA was assumed in calculation of AKI values of '19 auto- + 1 Y-STRs'. In all calculations, the D5S818 and CSF1PO loci were assumed to be independent (although current data do not support the assumption). The true AKI of '19 auto- + 1 Y-STRs' should be slightly lower.