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Table 1 Pedigree, phylogeny and aDNA-based estimates of mtDNA mutation rates (per bp per year × 10 −8 )

From: Maternal ancestry and population history from whole mitochondrial genomes

Domain mtDNA coding RNA PC1 + 2 PC3 syn HVS-I HVS-II D-loop
No sites 16569 15447 4021 6034 3017 4170 360 316 1122
Pedigree data          
Howell et al. 2003 [40]          47
Sigurdardottir et al. 2000 [42]        21  
Heyer et al. 2001 [39]        39  
Santos et al. 2005 [41]        7.4 43.3 17
Rebolledo et al. 2014 [30] 1.3         7.7
Phylogenetic          
Vigilant et al. 1991 [43]          5.7
Horai et al. 1995 [37]       3.9    
Ingman et al. 2000 [38]   1.7        
Tang et al. 2002 [44]   1        
Mishmar et al. 2003 [45]   1.26        
Kivisild et al. 2006 [26]       3.41    
Loogvali et al. 2009 [27]       3.00    
Soares et al. 2009 [28] 1.67 1.71 0.77 0.89 1.93   16.4 22.9 12.3
Phylogeographic          
Forster et al. 1996 [21]        18   
Ho and Endicott 2008 [46]   2.04        
Poznik et al. 2013 [47] 2.3         
Ancient DNA          
Fu et al. 2013 [48] 2.67 1.57   0.82 3.27     
Brotherton et al. 2013 [49] 2.4         
Fu et al. 2014 [50] 2.53         
Rieux et al. 2014 [51] 2.14   1.01 0.76 3.32   31.4  
  1. ‘PC1 + 2’, second and third codon positions of protein coding genes; PC3, third codon positions; syn, total number of PC1 and PC3 positions at which transitions will not lead to amino acid replacement which is equal to the sum over all fourfold (2026) and twofold (2144) degenerate sites.