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Table 3 Personalised (unique) bacterial taxa colonising male and female scalp and pubic hair

From: Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science

Somatic origin (sex/individual) Bacterial taxa Natural habitat
Pubic (F. Ind.1) Lactobacillus spp. ×1a (Lactobacillaceae) Most prevalent genera in human vagina; also present in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) [39]
Scalp (F. Ind.1) Neisseriaceae Normal human flora of oro-nasopharynx [39]
Scalp (M. Ind.2) Nocardioidaceae Soil and aquatic habitats [44]
Scalp (M. Ind.2) Streptococcus sobrinus (Streptococcaceae) Implicated in dental pathologies [39]
Pubic (M. Ind.3) Corynebacterium × 2 spp.a (Corynebacteriaceae) Major inhabitants of skin flora [39]
Pubic (M. Ind.3) spp. Tissierellaceae fam.nov. Intestine, vagina, oral cavity; some general environmental [46]
Pubic (M. Ind.3) Anaerococcus spp.a (Tissierellaceae fam.nov) Human nasal cavity, skin and vagina [47]
Pubic (F. Ind.4) Campylobacteraceae Human oral cavity, intestinal tracts and environmental [48]
Scalp (F. Ind.5) Rhodocylcaceae Activated sludge and waste water [49]
Scalp (F. Ind.5) Micrococcaceae Widely distributed in environment; commensal on human skin [39]
Pubic (F. Ind.5) Lactobacillus × 3 spp.a (Lactobacillaceae) Prevalent and abundant in human vagina; also present in GIT [39]
Pubic (F. Ind.6) Gardnerella spp.a (Bifidobacteriaceae) Implicated in bacterial vaginosis (BV) [39]
Pubic (F. Ind.6) Enterobacteriaceae Many species harmless symbionts of the human GIT [39]
Pubic (F. Ind.6) Methylobacteriaceae Ubiquitous in nature, opportunistic pathogens [50]
Pubic (F. Ind.6) Pasteurellaceae Respiratory, alimentary and reproductive tracts [51]
Pubic (F. Ind.6) Pseudomonas spp.a (Pseudomonadaceae) Transients on human skin [39]
Pubic (M. Ind.7) Aurantimonadaceae Marine environment [52]
Scalp (M. Ind.7) Brachybacterium spp.a (Dermabacteraceae) Variety of environments [53]
Scalp/Pubic (M. Ind.7) Gordoniaceae Majority environmental [54], some human pathogens [55]
Scalp/Pubic (M. Ind.7) Rhodobacteriaceae Aquatic habitats [56]
Scalp/Pubic (M. Ind.7) Sphingomonadaceae Widespread in nature; present in water [57, 58]
  1. Data shows sex and somatic origin of hairs that harboured personalised bacterial taxa, as well as the natural habitats of the taxa.
  2. aBacteria identified to genus or species are regarded as the most discriminatory. As such, these taxa may be of significance in forensic investigations.