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Table 4 Current and ancestral estimates of female effective population size (N f ) based on simulations of the HGDP mtDNA sequences

From: Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences

  Mean Mode 95% HPD R2 Bias RMSE Coverage Factor 2
Current sizes         
Africa 11,505 11,841 11,052-11,951 0.93 −0.01 0.03 75 1
Oceania 3,509 3,936 3,053-3,952 0.98 −0.02 0.09 74 1
Europe 8,029 8,895 7,111-8,906 0.98 0.01 0.07 91 1
Central Asia 29,513 30,740 28,155-30,853 0.97 0 0.03 80 1
East Asia 100,111 108,787 91,032-109,030 0.97 0 0.06 71 1
Americas 1,802 2,030 1,531-2,070 0.97 0.04 0.10 78 1
Ancestral sizes         
Africa 57 10 5-113 0.67 1.96 1.88 82 1
Out-of-Africa 26 5 1-107 0.69 5.48 3.98 75 1
Oceania 52 13 4-112 0.65 2.09 2.21 90 1
Europe 118 23 10-253 0.88 3.09 2.77 73 1
Central Asia 1,663 2,863 372-2,956 0.91 0.19 0.41 97 1
East Asia 4,710 7,274 1,310-8,374 0.98 0.09 0.26 96 1
Americas 90 111 8-1,970 0.87 6.10 3.82 71 1
  1. The simulations assumed the model of population history in Figure 1 and the mean divergence time estimates in Table 2. Simulations were carried out with a uniform prior distribution on Nf of 1 to 100,000 for each regional group. The statistics for the pseudo-observed values (R2, Bias, RMSE, Coverage, and Factor 2) are as defined in the legend to Table 2.