Bayesian trees and divergence time estimates for mtDNA and NRY haplogroups. (A) mtDNA haplogroups; (B) NRY haplogroups with the fast mutation rate; (C) NRY haplogroups with the slow mutation rate. Red asterisks denote nodes with low support values (<0.95). F* in the NRY trees indicates a sample that was assigned to haplogroup F by SNP genotyping, but does not fall with other haplogroup F samples. Some NRY haplogroup K samples formed a monophyletic clade (labelled K in the trees) while others fell with haplogroup M samples (labelled KM in the trees); see also Additional file 3: Figure S8.