The model of population history used in simulations. We assumed a single out-of-Africa migration and further population divergence events (see text for further details). The model begins with the ancestral population in Africa (at time T1), a single out-of-Africa migration (T2), the first split between Oceania and Eurasia (T3), then Europe and Asia (T4), followed by Central and East Asia (T5), and finally between East Asia and the Americas (T6). We also required T2 to be greater than T3. The model assumes no migration between regions following divergence; in support of this assumption, there is very little sequence sharing between regions. We do allow changes in population size. This model was first used to estimate divergence times with combined mtDNA and NRY sequences, then the model and estimated mean divergence times were used in separate simulations of the mtDNA and NRY sequences to estimate ancestral and current Nf and Nm.