Comparison of different Y chromosomal substitution rates in time estimation using Y chromosome dataset of 1000 Genome dataset. Time estimations are performed in BEAST. (a) TMRCA of 526 Y chromosomes (including haplogroup A1b1b2b-M219 to T). (b) Time of Out-of-Africa migration, the age of macro-haplogroup CT. HCR- Thomson and HCR-Kuroki: Y chromosome base-substitution rate measured from human-chimpanzee comparison by Thomson et al.  and Kuroki et al. , respectively. Pedigree rate: Y chromosome base-substitution rate measured in a deep-rooting pedigree by Xue et al. . Autosomal Rate Adjusted: Y chromosome substitution rate adjusted from autosomal mutation rates by Mendez et al. . AEFM-America and AEFM-Sardinian: Y chromosome base-substitution rate based on archaeological evidence of founding migrations using initial peopling of Americas  and initial Sardinian expansion , respectively. Different reported mutation rates are given at the log scale. Confidence intervals for some of the mutation rates are very wide, and time calculations here use only the point estimate. The times would overlap more if all the uncertainties were taken into account. Figure was drawn using boxplot in R 3.0.2.